The Tear Gas Ministerial: Introduction | Previous | Next

The Tear Gas Ministerial


by Peter Costantini

Seattle - July 5, 2001

180 Movement for Democracy and Education
"Dedicated to helping build a campus-based movement for political empowerment and participatory democracy."

50 Years Is Enough Network: US Network for Global Economic Justice
"GLOBALIZE LIBERATION: NOT CORPORATE POWER! De-Fund the Fund! Break the Bank! Dump the Debt"

Agencia Latinoamericana de Información - América Latina en Movimiento (Ecuador)
"Un organismo de comunicación comprometido con la vigencia plena de los derechos humanos y la participación de los movimientos sociales en el desarrollo de América Latina." En español, portugués y inglés.

Alternatives ... for a different world (Canada)
Alternatives, Action and Communication Network for International Development. "Meets the needs and responds to the demands of progressive Canadians, and tries to create a more equitable and sustainable country for all." In English and French.

Assembly of the Poor (Thailand)
"A network of people who share the same destiny, that is being victims of over four decades of Thailand’s economic and industrialization development policies. The rural agricultural sector as the backbone of the country economy was being neglected." In Thai and English.

American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO)
Main U.S. labor federation. The AFL-CIO unites 68 national and international labor unions, including the Teamsters ( and the United Steelworkers of America ( Their site includes President John Sweeney's statements on Seattle and its implications for social activism and trade policy.

Alliance for Democracy
"A new Populist movement — not a political party — setting forth to end the domination of our economy, our government, our culture, our media and the environment by large corporations."

Association pour une Taxation des Transactions financières pour l'Aide aux Citoyens - ATTAC (France)
Association for the Taxation of Financial Transactions to Help Citizens
"A group linking citizens, associations, trade unions and newspapers." Works on issues of globalization and promotes the Tobin tax.

Associazione L'Altritalia (Italia)
"Un'associazione di volontariato ... [che promuove] attività di tutela e promozione dei diritti delle persone con particolare attenzione agli immigrati extracomunitari ... [e] attività finalizzate alla conoscenza e alla diffusione di stili di vita alternativi alla logica di mercato." Italian voluntary organization working on issues of immigration and racism and promoting new, more conscious lifestyles.

Australian Fair Trade and Investment Network (AFTINET)
A coalition of Australian environmental, labor, social justice, religious and other national organizations working "to start a critical public debate on WTO structures and to demand greater accountability by the Australian government for its role in them."

Professor Jagdish Bhagwati Homepage
Arthur Lehman Professor of Economics and Professor of Political Science at Columbia University

BRIDGES Weekly Trade News Digest
Latest Edition
Searchable Archive
Published by the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development with technical support from the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy. Provides "a weekly review of trade-related articles and information relevant to the sustainable development and trade communities," focusing mainly on the WTO.

Professor Richard L. Brinkman
Professor of Economics and International Studies, Portland State University, Portland, OR

Canadian Alliance on Trade and Environment
"A coalition of Canadian public interest and labour groups ... changing Canada's role to defend environment, social justice and democratic rights."

Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives
"An independent, non-profit research organization ... founded in 1980 to promote research on economic and social policy issues from a progressive point of view."

Center for Campus Organizing
"A national group that supports campus activism." - The Nation

Center for Economic and Policy Research
"Established to promote democratic debate on the most important economic and social issues that affect people's lives."

Center for Economic Justice
The group's objective is "to strengthen international grassroots movements to counter corporate-driven globalization and to promote just alternatives."

Center for International Development at Harvard University - Global Trade Negotiations Home Page
A deep site with links to papers on a variety of issues related to the WTO.

Center for International Environmental Law
"A public interest, not-for-profit environmental law firm founded in 1989 to strengthen international and comparative environmental law and policy around the world."

Center for the Study of Globalization and Regionalization
Located at the University of Warwick, Britain

Centro Informazione Educazione allo Sviluppo (Italia)
"Siamo un'organizzazione non governativa ... Lavoriamo nella cooperazione internazionale e, in Italia, siamo impegnati nella realizzazione di una società multiculturale fondata sulla piena integrazione degli immigrati." Non-governmental organization working for cooperative development in the world and with immigrants in Italy.

Coalition of Service Industries
"The leading business organization dedicated to the reduction of barriers to US services exports, and to the development of constructive domestic US policies, including tax policies, that enhance the global competitiveness of its members."

Codex Alimentarius Commission
A body established jointly in 1961 by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization (both of the United Nations) to develop a food code. "The Codex Alimentarius, or the food code, has become the seminal global reference point for consumers, food producers and processors, national food control agencies and the international food trade."

Comhlámh - development workers in global solidarity (Ireland)
"Set up in 1975 by Irish returned development workers who wished to promote effective global development through education and campaigning and to provide personal and social space for their colleagues on their return."

Confédération Paysanne (France)
Syndicats français pour une agriculture paysanne et durable et la défense de ses travailleurs dans un monde solidaire. José Bové est un de ses militants.

Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network Thematic Guides - General Agreement on Tariffs And Trade
Full text of GATT with some explanation.

Coopération Internationale pour le Développement et la Solidarité (Belgique)
"Une coalition internationale de 14 organisations catholiques de développement d'Europe et Canada qui travaillent avec des organisations et des partenaires de tous continents." Site en français et anglais.

Coordinamento delle Organizzazioni non governative per la Cooperazione Internazionale allo Sviluppo - COCIS (Italia)
"Una federazione di organizzazioni non governative che operano in diversi settori della cooperazione allo sviluppo, condividendo un'etica basata sulla promozione dell'autosviluppo, la solidarietà tra i popoli e la centralità della persona." Italian federation of non-governmental organizations working to promote self-development, solidarity among populations and the centrality of the human being.

Corporate Europe Observatory
"A European-based research and campaign group targeting the threats to democracy, equity, social justice and the environment posed by the economic and political power of corporations and their lobby groups."

Corporate Watch
Who Owns the WTO? Corporations and Global Trade
Issue Library: WTO
"An online magazine and resource center designed to provide activists, journalists, students, teachers and policy makers with an array of tools to investigate and analyze corporate activity." - The Nation

Council of Canadians/Conseil des Canadiens
"The Council's work on trade and investment issues aims at ... making corporations more accountable, governments more democratic and citizens more aware."

Continental Direct Action Network
"Consists of many autonomous locals working to overcome corporate globalization and all forms of oppression. ... The Direct Action Network began as a coalition of activists groups working together to coordinate the successful N30 shutdown of the WTO Seattle Ministerial."

dollars & Sense
"A Bi-Monthly Magazine of Economic Issues and Opinion."

¡Ya Basta! Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (México)
"Año 18 de la lucha y octavo de la guerra contra el olvido y la mentira. ... ¡Ya Basta! surge en la primavera del 1994 con el fin de proporcionar información fidedigna del alzamiento zapatista y servir para dar voz a los zapatistas en la red."

Environics International (Canada)
Private firm that does research on issues of globalization and sustainable development. "Specializes in helping client corporations achieve competitive advantage and market success by proactively addressing their environmental and social responsibilities."

European Commission - Directorate General for Trade
"The 15 member states of the European Union have a common commercial policy towards non-member countries" [aiming] "to contribute, in the common interest, to the harmonious development of world trade, the progressive abolition of restrictions on international trade and the lowering of customs barriers."

European Network on Debt and Development (Belgium)
"A network of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in 16 European countries. It aims to coordinate the activities of NGOs working on the issues of Third World debt, structural adjustment, and financial markets in order to ensure that their views be brought to bear on decision-makers in Europe, the Bretton Woods Institutions and other relevant players." In English and French.

European Trade Union Confederation
Established in 1973, now includes 65 national trade union confederations from 28 countries and 14 European industry federations with a total of 59 million members. Multilingual site.

Fair Trade Watch (United Steelworkers of America)
"This site has been developed by the United Steelworkers of America to provide information on trade and the global economy from a worker prospective."

Fair World (Italia)
"Fair Trade, ethical finance, responsible consumers: a new way to combine your dreams for a fairer world with your daily life. ... Born to offer in a coherent framework the information useful to become actors of the solidarity economy." Bilingual Italian and English site managed by Cooperativa Pangea, Roma.

Federación Agraria Argentina
"Desde 1912, en defensa de los productores agropecuarios."

Financial Markets Center (U.S.)
"An independent, nonprofit institute that provides research and education resources to grassroots groups, unions, policymakers and journalists interested in the Federal Reserve System and financial markets."

Focus on the Global South (Thailand)
"Aims to consciously and consistently articulate, link and develop greater coherence between local community-based and national, regional and global paradigms of change. ... Strives to create a distinct and cogent link between development at the grassroots and the 'macro' levels."

Food First/Institute for Food and Development Policy (U.S.)
"A member-supported, nonprofit 'peoples' think tank and education-for-action center. Our work highlights root causes and value-based solutions to hunger and poverty around the world, with a commitment to establishing food as a fundamental human right."

Foreign Policy In Focus: WTO and Developing Countries (Thailand)
By Aileen Kwa, Focus on the Global South, Bangkok

Foreign Trade Statistics - U.S. Census Bureau
"Monthly statistical reports, imports and exports by country, trade balances, commodity trade..."

Friends of the Earth - Trade, Environment and Sustainability Programme
"Friends of the Earth International (FoEI) campaigns against unsustainable and inequitable international trade." - World Trade Organization
"The Financial Times's latest news and analysis on world trade as the WTO meets in Seattle." Also includes updates since then. Published in London.

G8: Documenti, articoli, informazioni, aggiornamenti - il manifesto (Italia)
G8 archivio, Verso Genova e Terra Terra. Informazioni sul vertice del Grupo di Otto a Genova in luglio 2001, per un giornale della sinistra.

"A joint initiative of Corporate Europe Observatory and the Transnational Institute" covering the General Agreement On Trade In Services.

Genoa Social Forum (Italia)
"Questo sito offre informazioni sul percorso di una rete di soggetti e Associazioni che vogliono porsi criticamente verso un assetto mondiale iniquo e ineguale. E che lo farà a Genova in occasione del Summit degli 8 paesi piu' industrializzati del mondo." International coalition of non-governmental groups demonstrating in Genoa during the Group of Eight summit, July 2001.

Susan George Homepage
Paris-based scholar and writer. Associate Director of the Transnational Institute in Amsterdam, President of the Observatoire de la Mondialisation [Globalisation Observatory] in Paris and Vice-President of ATTAC France.

History Link: This Week in the History of Seattle and King County
"Last year, we set up the original WTO-Cam in the HistoryLink offices overlooking downtown Seattle's Westlake Park with no great expectation of witnessing anything significant."

Human Rights for Workers - Information on the Need for Global Rules
Edited by Robert Senser of the Canadian Auto Workers Union.

Independent Media Center
"Organized to provide instant Web access to anti-WTO issues, this is a great site to go to get a sense of what really happened in Seattle and how it felt to be there." - The Nation

Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy
Mission: "To create environmentally and economically sustainable rural communities and regions through sound agriculture and trade policy."

Institute of Development Studies
University of Sussex, Britain

Institute for International Economics
"A private, nonprofit, nonpartisan research institution devoted to the study of international economic policy." Based in Washington, D.C.

International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development
A non-governmental organisation "established in Geneva in September 1996 to contribute to a better understanding of development and environment concerns in the context of international trade."

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) - Trade & Labour Standards
"Set up in 1949 ... has 221 affiliated organisations in 148 countries and territories on all five continents, with a membership of 156 million."

International Forum on Globalization
"Formed in response to the worldwide drive toward a globalized economic system dominated by supranational corporate trade and banking institutions, the San Francisco-based IFG advocates equitable, democratic and ecologically sustainable economics." - The Nation

International Labor Organization
Founded in 1919, today an agency of the United Nations. Won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1969. "Seeks the promotion of social justice and internationally recognized human and labour rights."

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
"A worldwide federation of national standards bodies from some 140 countries, one from each country. ... The mission of ISO is to promote the development of standardization and related activities in the world with a view to facilitating the international exchange of goods and services, and to developing cooperation in the spheres of intellectual, scientific, technological and economic activity." Founded in 1947.

International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce
"Our Mission: To Help U.S. Business Succeed, Globally."

Jobs with Justice (U.S.)
"Join hundreds of labor, community, religious and student activists from around the country working to build powerful coalitions for workers’ rights and economic justice."

Jubilee 2000
"A movement in more than forty countries to cancel the debts of the world's poorest countries." - The Nation

The Official Paul Krugman Web Page
Professor of Economics at Princeton University and columnist for the New York Times. "The main purpose of this page is to give interested parties - students, colleagues, journalists, mad bombers, etc. - easy access to some of my more recent writings."

Lawyers Committee for Human Rights - Workers' Rights Program
"The Lawyers Committee is committed to combating human rights abuses against workers and ensuring that their rights are respected."

Left Business Observer
"A newsletter on politics and economics." Published by economics writer Doug Henwood. Includes LBO @ WTO, "reports & pictures from the world-historic Seattle WTO extravaganza."

Legambiente (Italia)
"Tutela dell'ambiente, difesa della salute dei cittadini, salvaguardia del patrimonio artistico italiano... Sono molti i campi in cui Legambiente è quotidianamente impegnata, a livello nazionale e locale." A major Italian environmental organization.

Marches Européennes (France)
"Constituées en 1996 pour organiser les marches vers Amsterdam contre le chômage, la précarité et les exclusions veulent aujourd'hui faire un pas de plus en s'adressant aux différentes composantes des mouvements sociaux européens pour coordonner les luttes des uns et des autres contre l'offensive néo-libérale sans précédent que nous connaissons à l'échelle de la planète." Multilingual site in six languages.

Mike Moore: Director-General of the World Trade Organisation (New Zealand)
A critical Kiwi perspective on Moore, a former New Zealand Prime Minister.

Multinational Monitor (U.S.)
"Tracks corporate activity, especially in the Third World, focusing on the export of hazardous substances, worker health and safety, labor union issues and the environment."

National Wildlife Federation - Trade and Environment
"To expand grassroots awareness of the important link between international trade issues and the environment and to promote the reform of U.S. and international policies and institutions to ensure that the protection of wildlife and wild places becomes an integral part of international economic development."

New Internationalist magazine (UK)
See especially:
Issue 320, January/February 2000: Blueprint for Change - Redesigning the Global economy.
Issue 334, May 2001: WTO - Shrink it or sink it.

Observatoire de la Mondialisation (France)
"Un groupe de 17 économistes, chercheurs, journalistes, responsables syndicaux et associatifs, engagés dans le suivi critique de la mondialisation de l'économie."
"connect to a better world." A network of non-governmental organizations and multilingual sites in 10 countries with its international headquarters in London. Heavy with content on a wide range of international issues.

One World América Latina
A cargo de Fundación Acceso, con sede en Costa Rica, América Central. Sitio hermano de

One World Spain
"Un portal sobre derechos humanos, desarrollo, paz y solidaridad. Somos un centro de la red internacional de OneWorld."

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
The club of rich countries. "The OECD groups 29 member countries in an organisation that, most importantly, provides governments a setting in which to discuss, develop and perfect economic and social policy."
"The promotion of trade liberalisation has always been central to the OECD mandate. As early as 1960, its Convention set the goal of contributing to the expansion of world trade on a multilateral basis in accordance with international obligations."

Organization of American States (OAS)
Foreign Trade Information System - WTO Dispute Settlements
"Adopted Panel Reports, Appellate Body Reports, Arbitrator's Reports and Mutually Acceptable Solutions (1996 - 2000)"
Trade Unit
"... [C]reated in 1995 as part of the OAS's response to mandates from the first Summit of the Americas. Its primary function is to support the OAS member states in matters related to trade policy and economic integration and, in particular, with their efforts to negotiate a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA)."

People For Fair Trade and Network Opposed to WTO
"Begin Writing an International Trade Agreement for All People. Rallies, Marches, Forums, Protest Flotillas."

Peoples´ Global Action
"A worldwide co-ordination of resistance against the global market, a new alliance of struggle and mutual support." Central contact in Canada, site in seven languages.

Probe International
"Exposes the devastating environmental, social, and economic effects of Canada's aid and trade abroad."

Public Citizen Global Trade Watch
"A division of Ralph Nader's Public Citizen that deals with international trade and investment"policies." - The Nation
World Trade Organization page

Rainforest Action Network
"An education and action organization working to save rainforests worldwide." - The Nation

Réseau des centres de documentation pour le développement et la solidarité internationale - RITIMO (France)
"Les Centres de Documentation Tiers-Monde sont des lieux d'accueil, d'information et d'échange. ... Agréé par l'Education nationale au titre des Associations éducatives complémentaires de l'enseignement public." - Globalization and its discontents
"Salon's coverage of world trade talks, the rising protests and their political legacy."

Prof. Amartya Sen
1998 Nobel laureate in economics for his contributions to welfare economics and Professor of Economics at Trinity College, Cambridge (UK)

Sierra Club
"A nonprofit organization whose goal is to explore, enjoy and protect the wild places of the earth; to practice and promote the responsible use of the earth's ecosystems and resources and to educate and enlist humanity to protect and restore the quality of the natural and human environments." - The Nation

Professor Ajit Singh
Professor of Economics at the University of Cambridge (UK) and Fellow of Queens' College

South Centre
"An Intergovernmental Organization of Developing Countries" pursuing the objectives of "promoting South solidarity, South-South co-operation, and co-ordinated participation by developing countries in international forums."

South-North Exchange
"A network of people from throughout the Americas who are fighting for economic, political, environmental, racial, indigenous, and gender justice in a context of corporate globalization and neoliberalism."

Student Alliance to Reform Corporations
"Seeks to make corporations more socially and environmentally responsible." - The Nation

Third World Network
Trade Issues/Rules and WTO
"Involved in North/South, development and Third World issues." - The Nation

TomPaine.common sense - A Journal of Opinion
A non-profit, public-interest Web-zine. "Our mission: enrich the public discourse ... bring fresh ideas to the fore ... challenge what the great patriot Thomas Paine called 'distant and unaccountable rulers.'"

Trade & Development Centre
"A joint venture of the World Bank and the World Trade Organization. This site is for anyone interested in social and economic development and how these are related to trade."

Trade Environment Database
"A unique inventory of the impacts of trade on environment, culture, and a variety of other issues." Over 200 case studies based on trade-environment disputes or trade or environmental agreements, researched by graduate students at the American University School of International Service, Washington, DC.

Trade Knowledge Network
"Aimed at building long-term capacity to address the issues of trade and sustainable development in developing country research institutions, non-governmental organizations and governments through increased awareness, knowledge and understanding of the issues."

Trade Off - Wright Angle Media
A film on the Seattle Ministerial. "No film better captures the spirit, chaos, joy, power and meaning of the Battle of Seattle, than Shaya Mercer’s Trade Off." - Jerry Mander

Transatlantic Business Dialogue (TABD)
"Offers an effective framework for enhanced cooperation between the transatlantic business community and the governments of the European Union (EU) and United States (US)."

Transnational Institute (Netherlands)
"An international network of activist-scholars concerned to analyse and find viable solutions to such global problems as: militarism and conflict, poverty and marginalisation, social injustice, and environmental degradation." Based in Amsterdam.

Transnationale (France)
Association française indépendante créée en octobre 1999 à Martigues. "Nous recherchons et publions des informations pertinentes sur les grandes entreprises."

unimondo (Italia)
unimondo - World Trade Organization
"Diffondere un'informazione qualificata e pluralista sullo sviluppo umano sostenibile, l'ambiente, la pace, i diritti umani è l'obiettivo di UniMondo." Italian group working for sustainable development and international social justice. Sister site of

"The website of the Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees has information on their Stop Sweatshops campaign and on taking action on hot political issues, including the WTO, trade and the minimum wage." - The Nation

United for a Fair Economy
"Formed in 1994 by community organizers from the labor, women's, civil rights, and anti-poverty movements. ... Its goal is to revitalize America through a more fair distribution of wealth."

United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)
"Created in December 1992 to ensure effective follow-up of UNCED [United Nations Conference on Environment and Development]; to monitor and report on implementation of the Earth Summit agreements at the local, national, regional and international levels."

United Nations Conference on Trade And Development (UNCTAD)
"UNCTAD must and will remain the guardian of the world's development conscience, striving for greater equity and a narrowing of disparities between nations." - Rubens Ricupero, Secretary-General

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
"At the UN Millennium Summit, world leaders pledged to cut poverty in half by 2015. UNDP is charged with helping to make this happen. A trusted source of knowledge-based advice and an advocate of a more inclusive global economy, UNDP provides funds; helps developing countries attract and use aid effectively; and promotes South-South cooperation."

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) - Trade and Environment
"UNEP is publishing a series of monographs on trade and environment. It is also working with the World Trade Organization and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development to organize meetings and workshops for policy-makers and experts."

United States International Trade Commission
"An independent, quasi-judicial federal agency that provides objective trade expertise to both the legislative and executive branches of government, determines the impact of imports on U.S. industries, and directs actions against certain unfair trade practices ..."

United States Trade Representative
"Responsible for developing and coordinating U.S. international trade, commodity, and direct investment policy, and leading or directing negotiations with other countries on such matters."

United Students Against Sweatshops
"An international coalition devoted to stopping sweatshop labor worldwide." - The Nation

University of Washington Gateway to the World Trade Organization
"Provides a gateway to the numerous activities at the University of Washington surrounding the Third Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization."

US Trade Organization
"Pro-free trade but offers daily updates on trade news." - The Nation

La Via Campesina - Movimiento campesino international (Honduras)
"Un movimiento internacional que coordina organizaciones campesinas de medianos y pequeños agricultores, de trabajadores agrícolas, mujeres y comunidades indígenas de Asia, Africa, América y Europa."

WCIT WEB - Washington Council on International Trade
"An up-to-date resource for information on issues related to international trade." Includes Webcast of Seattle WTO events.

The World Bank Group - International Economics & Trade
"Economics is the main discipline that World Bank staff, country policymakers, and policy analysts use in assessing development progress and in designing and implementing policies to achieve sustainable development."

World Civil Society Forum
Grew out of the the Millennium Forum on UN reforms (May 2000, New York). "... intends to reinforce cooperation between civil society (NGOs, indigenous peoples, research centers, etc.) and international organizations. It will encompass the different areas of the international arena (the environment, health, human rights, humanitarian rights, education, peace, security, information technology, etc.) and will allow, in each of these areas, the promotion of cooperation." Site in English, French and Spanish.

World Development Movement (UK)
"WDM's campaigns tackle the root causes of poverty. Working together with people in the developing world, we successfully change the policies of governments and business that keep people poor."

World Intellectual Property Organization
A specialized agency of the United Nations system "responsible for the promotion of the protection of intellectual property throughout the world through cooperation among States ..."

World Trade Agenda
"A fortnightly in-depth briefing on up-coming trade issues, disputes and negotiations." Based in Geneva and edited by David Woods, former Director of Information at the GATT and the WTO.

World Trade Organization
The official site of the WTO.

WTO World Trade Organisation: Scheda descrittiva (Italia)
"Guidata dalla logica del 'mercato', la politica del WTO è stata sinora stabilita dai paesi più potenti e dalle loro influenti società transnazionali. Il risultato è che le preoccupazioni legate all'ambiente, alla cultura, ai diritti umani, alla qualità della vita sono state messe da parte mentre la globalizzazione ha proseguito la sua marcia." Pagina di Roberto Meregalli.
"The global information center on the WTO, trade, and sustainable development." Published by the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy.

Peter Costantini covered the WTO Seattle Ministerial for Inter Press Service, a newswire based in Rome.